Odds And Ends
This final entry of the series contains assorted information collected from the fragmented tablets discovered by George Smith, as explained in the introductory post. Some of these minor details you might find worth taking a look at, or not, but at the same time, I might be writing a related work of fiction in the future which may incorporate this information. Thus, I’d rather have the items available to me now instead of having to compile the data all over again later.
In the ancient antiquity of Babylon, there is mention of three great cities that surpassed all the rest. These cities were Erech, Eridu and Nipur. The patron gods of these cities were, respectively, Anu, Hea and Bel. Below is an expanded hierarchy of the twelve major or primary Babylonian gods:
City – God – Main Title
Babylon – Merodach (also Marduk) – prince of gods, lord of birth
Cutha – Nergal – giant king of war
Erech (Biblical Uruk) – Anu – king of angels and spirits
Eridu – Hea – god of fate, wisdom and knowledge
Larsa, Sippara – Shamash – director, judge of heaven and earth
Muru – Vul – lord of canals and atmosphere
Nipur – Bel – father of all gods
Nipur – Belat – wife of Bel, mother of all gods
Nipur – Ninip – warrior of the gods, destroyer of the wicked
Ur – Sin – lord of crowns and brightness
widespread – Nusku – holder of the golden scepter, the lofty god
widespread – Ishtar – eldest of heaven and earth, raising the faces of warriors
After these 12 gods came the bulk of the pantheon. It is here that the many lesser gods came into play. Below the pantheon we have the Igege, or the angels of heaven, and the Anunnaki, the angels of earth. Below that level came the various categories of spirits or genii: the Sedu, the Vadukku, the Ekimu and the Gallu, and others, some of which were evil and some good.
About the god Anu: He is identified as the ruler of god and heaven. Anu represents the entire universe when it was primordial and an abyss of profound waters. When these waters were split, the upper region or heaven was called Anu, and the lower region or earth was called Anatu. Anatu is seen as the female principle or wife of Anu and in many ways is a contrast to Anu. Whereas Anu represents height and heaven, Anatu represents depth and earth. Anatu is also seen as a female fish god.
One of Anu’s children is the air god Vul, who is also known as Pur, Ramman, Rimmon, Uban or Ben. Vul is the god of the atmosphere, or the space between heaven and earth. He is the god of rain, storms, whirlwinds, thunder, lightning and floods. In Syria and Arabai, Vul was known as Daddi. In Armenia, he was called Teiseba.
Another of Anu’s children is Bil-kan. This parallels the Biblical Tubal Cain of Genesis 4:22, and also the classical god Vulcan. Bil-kan is the god of fire, witchcraft and spells, and smelter of metals. Note what the Bible has to say about the early descendants of Cain:
And Ada brought forth Jabel; who was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of herdsmen. And his brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of them that play upon the harp and the organs. Sella also brought forth Tubalcain, who was a hammerer and artificer in every work of brass and iron. – (Genesis 4:20-22, Douay-Rheims Version)
In the first two sentences above, replace the word ‘father’ with the word ‘god,’ and you have Jabel as the god of herdsmen and Jubal as the god of music. (The word Jubilee means big party, by the way, and correlates well with Jubal, god of music.) Following this train of thought, Tubal Cain then becomes the god of the forge, much like Bil-kan was seen as the smelter of metals. This is more in line with all of the ancient civilizations that worshipped a pantheon of gods, where each god displayed specific attributes. In addition, it would be seen as logical that the early Hebrews would have a god of herdsmen. These Hebrews lived in tribes as nomadic shepherds all through the Old Testament and even at the time of the birth of Jesus, where it was a shepherd that saw the ‘star’ over Bethlehem. This idea of gods, or at least demigods, having specific charges or attributes is prevalent even in today’s world, as exemplified in the worship of saints by the Catholic Church.
It is very apparent from my research into ancient Canaan that the Hebrews worshipped a pantheon of gods, whether they want to admit it or not in the present day. This went on up until 500 or 400 BCE, when the male dominated priesthood ‘converted’ to monolatrism, the worship of one god among a bunch, and later, to monotheism, the belief that there is only one god. In the future, I’ll post more on how the early Jews erased the goddess Asherah, the wife and consort of Baal / El, from modern history.
A daughter of Anu was Istar, which evolved into Ishtar. This is the pagan goddess that was worshipped at the spring equinox. The Bible marks and still celebrates this time of year as Easter, when Jesus is said to have been crucified and to rise from the dead three days later. The inventors of the Bible didn’t strain too hard, did they, when they changed Istar to Easter. Istar is also seen as the planet Venus.
Hea was the god of the sea and of the underworld, or Hades. In some places, Hea is identified with Chronos, or Saturn, and in other instances he is more in line with Poseidon, or Neptune. Hea was the god of fishermen and sailors. His wife was Dav-Kina; in Damascius she was called Davke. She is the goddess of the lower regions.
The son of Hea and Dav-Kina is Merodach, or Maruduk or Marduk. Later, this god evolved into Bel. After the city of Babylon was made the capital of the Babylonian empire, Merodach was raised to the head of the pantheon as the chief god. According to the tablets, this would be because Izdubar / Nimrod, the great warrior who united the various cities, came from Babylon, and Merodach was the local deity. I’ll adjust the evolutionary path of the planet Saturn here, as seen in the various mythologies:
Saturn = Merodach = Bel = El = Yahweh = Jahve = Jehovah
Merodach was also identified with the planet Jupiter. When Merodach evolved into Bel and was seen as the father of all gods, he took on further attributes of Chronos. Bel was later seen as the father of all gods, and thus became associated with Saturn and what the Greeks called the Golden Age of Man.
There is a fragmented and curious tale of the god Merodach, going about the world and seeking to remove all of the curses and spells he came across. Merodach went to his father Hea and asked how he could combat the influence of evil spirits. This strikes me to be very similar to the esoteric and Masonic account of Solomon, who petitioned God to tell him the names and powers of all the demons on Earth, so Solomon could defeat them and imprison them all in jars.
Another interesting tidbit is that the Babylonian sun god was known as Shamash or Shamas. The sun god kept his name in later Mesopotamian religions and also in Canaan. Usually the names of the gods change with each subsequent culture, while their attributes stay the same. I am surprised that Shamash was found in numerous cultures.
Here’s another anomaly. In the Babylonian fragments there is a legend of the serpent having committed a great sin. Shamash decreed that the punishment was for the serpent to be eaten by the eagle. The eagle declined to eat the serpent. Later, some unknown person or god set a trap and caught the eagle, and the eagle was made to starve until it finally agreed to eat the serpent. This reminds me of the legend of Aztlan, where the ancient people of Mexico were said to be searching through the countryside for an eagle on a clump of cactus. When these people came to Lake Texcoco, they saw the eagle perched on a clump of cactus, and in its beak was a snake. This became the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. A rendition of this myth can be seen today on the flag of Mexico. There is too much similarity in the word Aztlan and the word Atlantis, in my opinion, and I think it’s too much of a coincidence that both the ancient Babylonians and the ancient Mexicans had similar legends of an eagle eating a serpent.
More oddities with names:
Cain, also Gina or Kinu, means to stand upright
Enoch, also Emuk, Enuk, means to be wise
Noah, Nuh, means rest and satisfaction
Cainan, or Kan-nan, was a town in Babylonia. The name means fish canal, and the residents were called Kanunai or Canaanites. Immigrants may have carried their geographical name over to their new home in the Biblical land of Canaan.
Gan-dunnu, or Gan-eden is linked with the Garden of Eden.
According to author Smith, the rise of the kingdom of Ur (2,000 to 1,850 BCE) coincides with the dates given for the life of Abraham, who is stated to come from Ur of the Chaldees (Genesis 11:31).
Sargina, or Sargon I, was a king of Babylon who reigned over Akkad at about 1600 BCE. The name stands for right, true or legitimate king, and may have been assumed upon Sargon’s ascension to the throne. In order to legitimize his claim on the throne, Sargon thought to connect himself with the old line of kings. Sargon’s claimed origins are as follows, and were found on fragments of tablets from Kouyunjik:
Sargina the powerful king, the king of Akkad am I
My mother was a princess, my father I did not know, a brother of my father ruled over the country.
In the city of Azupiranu which by the side of the river Euphrates is situated
My mother the princess conceived me; in difficulty she brought me forth
She placed me in an ark of rushes, with bitumen my exit she sealed up,
She launched me on the river which did not drown me
The river carried me, to Akki the water carrier it brought me
Akki the water carrier in tenderness of bowels lifted me;
Akki the water carrier as his child brought me up
Akki the water carrier as his husbandman placed me,
And in my husbandry Ishtar prospered me.
45? years the kingdom I have ruled
The people of the dark races I governed
Compare to the account of the infant Moses:
And when she could hide him (Moses) no longer, she took a basket made of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and pitch; and put the little babe therein, and laid him in the sedges by the river’s brink. – (Exodus 2:3, Douay-Rheims Version)
According to Berosus, 86 kings ruled for 34,080 years, or about 400 years each, between the great Flood and the Median or Elamite conquest. Author George Smith gives a more reasonable estimate of 1,000 years, or about 11 years reign for each king. This would place the Flood to have taken place at about 3500 BCE. This timeline may not be exact, but it is a lot better than what modern Biblical scholars and their apologists have been giving us. As we have seen, the first book of the Bible is chock full of Babylonian mythology.
Another side-note is that many of the ancient religions, such as the Aztecs, the Hopi, and the Indians, believed or still believe in cycles of time of between 5,000 and 6,000 years. Putting the Biblical Flood at 3,500 BCE gives us a date of about 5,500 years ago, which fits into this concept perfectly. This is when the age of darkness and decline and materialism began. Further, the last age ended on December 21st, 2012. We are now entering into an age of spiritual awakening and enlightenment, from the Age of Pisces to the Age of Aquarius.
The Bible is not 100% fiction, but neither is it 100% truth. Since the modern clergy doesn’t think it worthwhile to tell us the truth, it’s up to people like you and me to go out and find it. The three largest and most influential religions on this planet are Christianity, Judaism and Islam, and they’re more about controlling their congregations and followers than anything else. Like the verse says:
Then you will know the truth, and the truth will set you free. – (John 8:32, New International Version)